A Simulated IoT device with Node-RED

In the last few months, I have gradually shifted to use Node-RED as the tool for demonstrating and prototyping Azure IoT solutions. In particular, I configure a dashboard to display the ambient information sent from the device and verify the data received by an Azure IoT Hub and stored in an Azure storage account using Azure Storage Explorer form my desktop. Ideally, I would configure all on an Arduino or a Raspberry Pi. To make it more portable, I also do it with a local Ubuntu VM, so no need to plug in anything and I can demo a simple IoT setup anytime and anywhere on demand with Internet connectivity. Briefly, here’s an outline of what I did.

1. Installing & Starting Node-RED

On my Ubuntu (16.04 LTS) VM, update and upgrade everything, followed by install Node-Red.

If you need to make a require node module globally available in Node_RED, edit the file, ~/.node-red/settings.js accordingly. Here, I made the module, math.js, globally available and used it to round the ambient data to two decimal points.


Now, start Node-RED, as the below.


As activities being carried out in Node-RED, this session displays the log with diagnostics in real-time.

In Ubuntu, when close out the terminal session running Node-RED, somehow it also stops the Node-RED service. This is different than how it behaves in Raspberry Pi where closing a Node-RED terminal session will not stop the service.

2. Accessing Node-RED IDE

The default port for Node-RED IDE is 1880, as shown below accessing the service from localhost. If preferred, authentication can be enabled and port changed by following what is stated in documentation and the above-mentioned settings.js file.


By default, there are a number of nodes installed as show on the left panel. And you may install addition nodes to better fit the needs.

3. Install additional Nodes

There are ample nodes and flows in Node-RED web site which you may install a from and contribute to. In addition to install these node modules with a command line interface, doing it interactively is also an option. In the IDE, click the upper right waffle within the Node-RED session and click ‘Manage palette’. If you do not see the option, update npm to the latest should make this option appear. As shown below, the Nodes tab presents the nodes installable directly or already installed currently. The


and on the install tab, you may keyword-search the Node-RED repository for relevant modules. Below, I search the modules relevant to Azure.


A few modules, I frequently install including:

4. Develop & Deploy a Node-RED Process Flow

To create a flow, start dragging selected nodes from the left panel to the canvas and construct flows by connecting the nodes. There copious amount of contents with how-to instructions on Node-RED in Internet already. Or if you like to do it in an old fashioned way, like me, by reading the document. The following is a simulated device with a few nodes to send and display ambient data to an Azure IoT Hub call thisiothub, as the following.


Global Variables

Here, I added a config node to set the global variable to set the baseline temperature, humidity and pressure for a simulation run. Node-RED will always initialize a config node prior to executing all flows presented on the canvas.


The timestamp node sets the time interval for sending data. When developing and troubleshooting, I set it to a long period between messages to minimize the noises. When demoing, I will then set it based on a customer’s requirements. Each time, the timestamp triggers, the connected nodes are consequently executing the programmed the logic, respectively.

The Functions

In this setting, each emission by the timestamp node has the following effects.

  • This IoT Device function prepares the message payload and updates current ambient data which are global variables.
  • The temperature, humidity and pressure functions pipe the data stored in the global variables to a configured Node-RED dashboard.

This IoT Hub

This node has the host name of a target Azure IoT hub, here thisiothub, and the device connection information is provided in the function, This IoT Device.


This is a debug node. Once dragged to the canvas, it will automatically rename itself to msg.payload. Once connected, this node becomes a standardout of Node-RED. And you can examine the output in the debug tab in the right panel. In the screen capture above, you will find that I rounded the data to two decimal points and send it with mqtt.


Gauges and Charts

A main reason motivating me to use Node-RED is the simplicity to configure and deploy a dashboard directly on an IoT device. Data visualization is essential for an IoT solution which is all about data. The ability to deploy a dashboard right there and when on demand is a significant time saver and a noticeable advantage. It did however took me some practices to correctly place those gauges and charts the way I wanted. Once configured, the dashboard is published automatically at http://node-red-instance/ui and here is what I got.


Verifying the Data Sent to Azure IoT Hub

There are two tools I use for managing and examining the activities between an IoT device and Azure IoT Hub. Namely, iothub-explorer for Linux and Device Explorer for Windows. The latter is a sharp tool for Windows users to examine data, .


And a convenient way to get the connection strings.


I also deployed a sample web app which plots the temperature and the humidity data received form thisiotdevice in real time, as shown.


So either from Azure IoT Hub or directly on the device, we may present the data visually.

Some Gotcha

Ubuntu frequently stopped Node-RED when a deployment had failed connecting to Azure IoT Hub, and the node will also lost the host name data. And I had to frequently restart the services and re-enter the Azure IoT Hub host name in the node configuration. And it is better to leave the terminal session where you started the Node-RED service visible at all time to restart the service as needed. I once spent hours troubleshooting a flow, researching material and was not able to figured out why, only to later find out the Node-RED service exited its session upon a failed deployment behind the scene.

Closing Thoughts

Node-RED is a great learning and prototyping tool. And once learned, you can create process logic based on data flows relatively easily. It is visual and a picture is always worth a thousand words


p align=”left”>Azure IoT Hub is the Swiss army knife for formulating an IoT solution. It does the heavy lifting for registering, securing and managing devices with interfaces to integrate other Azure or 3rd-party services. The recent announcement of Azure IoT Edge opens up many scenarios and opportunities to increase ROI by processing data right where they are collected. Which is what I plan to include to the next version of my Node-RED flow. Stay tuned.


NIST Guidance on Container Security

Here, a selected few of NIST documents which I’ve found very informative may help those who seek formal criteria, guidelines and recommendations for evaluating containerization and security.

NIST SP 800-190

Application Container Security Guide

Published in September of 2017, this document (800-190) reminds us the potential security concerns and how to address those concerns when employing containers. 800-190 details the major risks and the countermeasures of container technologies include image, registry, orchestrator, containers and host OS.

Worth pointing out that in section 6 of 800-190 recommends organizations should apply all, while listing out  exceptions and additions in planning and implementation to, the NIST SP 800-125 Section 5 recommendations in a container technology context.


Security Assurance Requirements for Linux Application Container Deployments

Published in October of 2017, this document (8176) explains the execution model of Linux containers and assumes the attack model is that the vulnerability in the application code of the container or its faulty configuration has been exploited by an attacker. 8176 also examines securing containers based on hardware and configurations including namespace, cgroups and capabilities. Addressing the functionality and assurance requirements for the two types container security solutions, 8176 complements NIST 800-190 which provides the security guidelines and counter measures for application containers, .

NIST SP 800-180

NIST Definition of Microservices, Application Containers and System Virtual Machines

As of January of 2018, this document (800-180) is not yet finalized, while the draft was published in February of 2017 and the call for comments had ended in the following month.

The overwhelming interests on container technologies and their applications have energized organizations for seeking new and improved ways to add values to their customers and increase ROI. At the same time, as containers, containerization and microservices have become highly popular terms and over and over again being abused in our daily business conversations, the lack of rigorous and recognized criteria to clearly define what containers and microservices are has been in my view a main factor confusing and perhaps misguided many. For those who seek definitions and clarity before examining a solution, the agony of being in a state of confusion suffocated by the ambiguity of technical jargons indiscreetly applied to statements can be, or for me personally is, a very stressful experience. And some apparently has had enough and urged us that “There is no such thing as a microservice!”

With 800-180 serving a similar role to what NIST 800-145 to cloud computing, we now have a set of criteria to reference as a baseline for carrying out a productive conversation on containers., microservices and related solutions. And that’s a good thing.

NIST SP 800-125

Guide to Security for Full Virtualization Technologies

Like many NIST documents, this document (800-125) first gives the background information by explaining what full virtualization is, the motivations of employing it and how it works, before depicting the use cases, requirements and security recommendations for planning and deployment. Although today most business and technical professionals in the IT industry are to some degree versed in virtualization technologies. 800-125 remains an interesting read and provides an insight into virtualization and security. There are two associated documents, as below, point out important topics on virtualization to for a core knowledge domain of the subject.

  • NIST SP 800-125A Security Recommendations for Hypervisor Deployment on Servers
  • NIST SP 800-125B Secure Virtual Network Configuration for Virtual Machine (VM) Protection